Here is an example of a sentence consisting of two independent clauses. Now, you may, or may not, have noticed that in my example sentence there is no comma before the and in that list. When you use a conjunction at the start of a sentence… C. Do not use a comma before a partial quotation. In formal writing, so at the beginning of a sentence would not likely be followed by a comma. Often so is used in a similar way as the last example, as a conjunction, but placed at the start of a sentence; The puppy was cute. And then, we come to using so at the start of a sentence. Use a comma to set off a person’s town of residence, age and other such information: “Tom Menino, Boston, was a popular speaker”; “Jean Dupont, 32, was released yesterday.” Period: Use only one space after the end of a sentence. In the following, for instance, we include “on” to clarify that we’re referring to “Dr. ... A clause beginning with which should usually be set off with commas. In addition, in AP style, you should not use ordinal numbers in dates: As a default, it also suggests using the US date format since the AP Stylebook is a US English style guide. The results contradicted Smith's hypothesis and indicated that the effect was nonsignificant. In the “olden” days, the rule was to put a comma after ANY element that came at the beginning of the sentence. The same applies to days of the week (i.e., Mon, Tue, Wed, Thu, Fri, Sat, Sun), which should always be written in full elsewhere. However, you can also adapt the guidance here if you’re writing for an audience that uses a day-month-year date format, such as in the UK. I got an e-mail from a reader named Mike who had a question about the sentence “Soon I will go to the office,” which I had used as an example in a piece I wrote. Do not use commas after a man’s name if he is a “Jr.,” “Sr.” “II,” “III,” etc. So, I picked it up. When while is the first word of your sentence, you obviously shouldn’t add a comma in front of it. ✓, Last Tuesday’s parade drew a crowd of 14,000. While at the Beginning of a Sentence. The exceptions include years, page numbers, and street addresses. Cedar shavings covered the floor, and paper was available for shredding. to set off a nonessential or nonrestrictive clause, that is, a clause that embellishes a sentence but if removed would leave the grammatical structure and meaning of the sentence intact. Comma Don’t use a comma before a conjunction in a simple series. between elements (including before and and or) in a series of three or more items.. the height, width, or depth; in a study by Spencer, Girard, and Singh (2010) to set off a nonessential or nonrestrictive clause, that is, a clause that embellishes a sentence but if removed would leave the grammatical structure and meaning of the sentence … The switch that stops the recording device also controls the light. Times: 4 p.m. Notice that AP style does not include a colon and two zeroes when referring to an even hour. 6, 1982 ✗. PLAY. And if you’re referring to an event more than a week from your publication date, give the date instead of the day of the week: The parade, which took place on May 14, drew a crowd of 14,000. The AP Stylebook recommends setting apart the year in a date with commas. If you have an introductory word (or two) that is being used as an adverb (usually answers the question of when, where, why, or to what degree), then no comma. Many businesses and news outlets use the guidelines set out in the Associated Press Stylebook (also known as AP style). When abbreviating a decade, AP style requires an apostrophe at the start: The ‘beehive’ hair style was popular throughout the ‘60s. Incorrect: The man ate breakfast at 8 a.m., and lunch at noon.” Correct: “The main ate breakfast at 8 a.m. and lunch at noon.” Use commas to separate subordinate clauses within a sentence. An independent clause is a clause that would convey a complete thought if it were to be set apart as a sentence on its own. But it makes an exception for years, which can go at the start of a sentence: As such, it’s fine to do this as long as the sentence reads smoothly. However, you should not use one before the “s” in decades or centuries: The early 1800s were a time of rapid change. The Associated Press has a stylebook with rules and standards used primarily in journalistic and news writing. The Associated Press Stylebook says, “Do not use on before a date or day of the week when its absence would not lead to confusion, except at the beginning of a sentence.” We agree with AP and … Consider Costco Wholesale Corp. as an example. AP style recommends abbreviating any month more than five letters long when writing a date (i.e.. Jan., Feb., Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov., and Dec.). The department prefers bullets, but punctuate them per AP style: After each bullet, capitalize the first letter and use periods at the end of each item. between elements (including before and and or) in a series of three or more items.. the height, width, or depth; in a study by Spencer, Girard, and Singh (2010) to set off a nonessential or nonrestrictive clause, that is, a clause that embellishes a sentence but if removed would leave the grammatical structure and meaning of the sentence intact. You don’t usually need to give the day of the week with a date. The sentence, “I like dogs, cats, and birds” looks visually correct because there is a comma after “dogs,” so there should be a comma after “cats,” too. AP Style Quotes Ellipses Examples: Without ellipsis: “After much deliberation, I decided yesterday that it was time for me to retire from this sport, hopefully leaving me enough healthy years to pursue my passion for writing.” With ellipsis: “I decided … it was time for me to retire from this sport,” said the seven-time champion. Subscribe to our newsletter and get writing tips from our editors straight to your inbox. Chicago style: Please call before October 1 to reserve your room. With this in mind, we’ll note issues below where UK conventions for writing dates would differ from those recommended in the AP Stylebook. This is the AP Stylebook’s fault. Chicago style: Thursday, November 12, 2015, was a normal day. Use a comma to set off a person’s town of residence, age and other such information: “Tom Menino, Boston, was a popular speaker”; “Jean Dupont, 32, was released yesterday.” Period: Use only one space after the end of a sentence. The puppy was cute, so I picked it up. And then, we come to using so at the start of a sentence. Generally, AP style forbids starting a sentence with a numeral, recommending either spelling out the number or rephrasing the sentence. The rule is to use a comma only when the second clause has its own explicit subject. Put it at the end of the clause that while introduces. Starting with so. before an essential or restrictive clause, that is, a clause that limits or defines the material it modifies. We hope this post has clarified the basics of dates in AP style. With full date, use commas before and after year. to set off the year in parenthetical reference citations, to separate groups of three digits in most numbers of 1,000 or more. The more nuanced answer follows: Cite it. Give the prize to the student who arrives first. Colons go outside quotation marks unless they are part of the quoted material. However, if the sentence continues after the year, you also need a comma after the date. This helps to ensure clarity for the reader about the date in question. The simplest rule-of-thumb, one that will rarely lead you wrong, is always to avoid comma after "So" at the start of a sentence, immediately after a semicolon, or immediately after a comma. ¶ Over 1.5 million copies sold! Lucius Caesar died at Massilia in 2 CE. You can see this in the examples above, where we put a comma between the date and the year to separate the numerals. Marilyn baked a dozen cookies, and she ate them. Nov… Linking verbs are a key part of English. Times: 4 p.m. Notice that AP style does not include a colon and two zeroes when referring to an even hour. Commas and Years in Dates. Period. The Chicago Manual of Style Online is the venerable, time-tested guide to style, usage, and grammar in an accessible online format. In the second example, the three phrases, all beginning with different verbs, are parallel, and the commas work with the verbs to demonstrate that … ✓. ✗. Grammar Ap style. You can also upload a document to get an instant quote. Commas almost always follow phrases at the beginning of sentences; use the comma to separate the phrase from the independent clause. So whether you want to follow this rule may depend on where your audience is based and your chosen dialect. But long-standing editorial practice in polished writing and Hodges Harbrace rule 13b both seem very clear about avoiding comma after "So" at the beginning of a sentence, after a semicolon, or after a comma. Thank you for subscribing to our newsletter! It depends! Doing so also helps search engines find your content. A. Writing & Copyediting Resources ... For a direct quotation of two or more sentences with the attribution at the beginning of the first sentence, put a colon, not a comma, after the attribution and place the quotation in double quotation marks. That applies regardless of what "so" means there or what grammatical term you think would describe it. There is some leeway with prepositional phrases. And if you only mention a month and year, no commas are required: It’s worth noting that these commas are much rarer in UK English. ; two years later, Gaius Caesar succumbed to a wound he received fighting against Armenian nationalists. Marilyn baked a dozen cookies and ate them. Place a comma after a one-sentence quotation that does not end with a question mark or exclamation point. Writing Tips: The Basics of Punctuation in AP Style. In literary terms, it is a clause that can stand on its own two feet. The puppy was cute, so I picked it up. Find it. 4. between elements (including before and and or) in a series of three or more items. Further, using the Oxford comma ensures there is no miscommunication. Chicago and AP agree, do not use st, nd, rd, or th on date, even though you pronounce it. Spell out numbers used at the beginning of a sentence: “Ten thousand people … If you refer to a month without an exact date, though, always write it in full: The August holidays were sunny and warm. However, you should use “on” with a date if it’s the first word in a sentence: On 12 July, the new law came into effect. AP style: Thursday, Nov. 12, 2015,was a normal day. So, should you put a comma after introductory words such as now, today, etc.? The rule today that many people get confused about is the rule about putting a comma after a prepositional phrase at the beginning of the sentence. Switch A, which was on a panel, controlled the recording device. ¶ It is the indispensable reference for writers, editors, proofreaders, indexers, copywriters, designers, and publishers, informing the editorial canon with sound, definitive advice. As such, you may want to ignore this rule if you’re writing for a UK audience (or readers in another country where day-month-year dates are standard). Freeman” on a specific day, not someone called “Dr. between two parts of a compound predicate, (adapted from the sixth edition of the APA Publication Manual, © 2010), © 2020 American Psychological Association, 750 First St. NE, Washington, DC 20002-4242, Telephone: (800) 374-2721; (202) 336-5500, in a study by Spencer, Girard, and Singh (2010). Introductory clauses are dependent clauses that provide background information or \"set the stage\" for the main part of the sentence, the independent clause. Writing & Copyediting Resources ... For a direct quotation of two or more sentences with the attribution at the beginning of the first sentence, put a colon, not a comma, after the attribution and place the quotation in double quotation marks. Specific AP Comma Rules In AP style, omit the comma before the last item in a simple series, such as "Joe, John and Steve." Period. AP style: The concert will be Feb. 10, 2016,at Carson Music Hall. The AP Stylebook recommends setting apart the year in a date with commas. But if you’re using while to mean “whereas,” you still need to put a comma somewhere. In the first sentence, the commas are important because each item presented is distinctly different from its adjacent item. Whatever. Associated Press style is to use dashes, not bullets, for lists that follow a colon. She smiled, “You’ll want to read this GateHouse Newsroom post about how to properly use quotation marks in AP style stories then.” The AP Stylebook has a few simple rules for using quotation marks in AP style stories. When to include the day of the week in a date. Colon Capitalize the first word after a colon only if it is a proper noun or the start of a complete sentence. The full name is not required if the company name is irrelevant to the story, and you don’t have to use the formal name on first reference. ✓, During the 1950’s, there was a post-war baby boom. The first word in a quotation that is a complete sentence … This page reflects guidance from the sixth edition of the Publication Manual. There are a couple of reasons why we wouldn’t normally see a comma-followed so in writing. And if you’d like help proofreading documents in AP style, our editors are available 24/7. True. to separate two independent clauses joined by a conjunction. The rule today that many people get confused about is the rule about putting a comma after a prepositional phrase at the beginning of the sentence. Commas and Dates at the Beginning of Sentences. According to the AP Stylebook, you use a comma to separate elements in a series, but never before the conjunction in most simple series (e.g., the flag is red, white and blue). ✓. STUDY. The AP style says that a comma is not needed between two clauses that have the same subject. AP style recommends omitting the word “on” before a day or a date: The Council met Tuesday to discuss the plan. The Associated Press Stylebook provides an A-Z guide to issues such as capitalization, abbreviation, punctuation, spelling, numerals and many other questions of language usage. Example: Kathy said that I should "pay it forward." ✓. The exception to this rule is tabular material, where you can use three-letter forms with no periods (i.e., Jan, Feb, Mar, Apr, May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct, Nov, Dec). Submit a 500-word sample document for free to find out more. Wait—not what you wanted to hear? AP style dictates specific comma … So far we’ve dealt exclusively with the use of commas in dates at the end of sentences. ✗. The same rule applies to all coordinating conjunctions. Use a comma for a series that included elements containing and or or Hyphen Trusted by thousands of leading institutions and businesses. Libraries around the world use the Dewey Decimal System to organize written works. And you should include it to prevent ambiguity. The guidelines help writers present clear and concise information with consistent structure to keep readers focused. Introductory Clauses. Whether to use “On” before a day or date. True False. Or not. CJ The AP Stylebook recommends setting apart the year in a date with commas. AP style: Please call before Oct. 1to reserve your room. It’s appropriate to refer to the company as Costco, but you’ll want t… Sorry. This is because the “s” here indicates a plural, not possession. In formal writing, in contrast to a casual style, a so that begins a sentence is not followed by a comma. Use the company’s full name somewhere in the article, especially if the article’s subject matter could affect the company’s business. ✗. What follows are summaries of some of the most common style rules. Wrong: Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. If you have an introductory word (or two) that is being used as an adverb (usually answers the question of when, where, why, or to what degree), then no comma. That final comma before the and in a list is called an Oxford comma, or serial comma. Chicago style: The concert will be February 10, 2016, at Carson Music Hall. Spell out numbers used at the beginning of a sentence: “Ten thousand people marched on the capital.” Exception: Never spell out years: “1999 was a terrible year for technology companies.” When I first started learning about punctuation, I found out that you should always have commas after words such as "today," "sometimes," "yesterday," and so on.Today, I found a website that disagrees, it says: . However, if you do, use a comma to set it off from the rest of the date: In addition, AP style recommends using a day of the week to avoid vague time elements, such as “today,” “tonight,” “tomorrow,” or “yesterday”: The main street was closed Tuesday for a parade. The most important aspect of dates in AP style is to use Arabic numerals for dates and years instead of writing them out in full as words: The event was held on the first of June 1987. No. However, if the sentence continues after the year, you also need a comma after … It is often stated as something like “Put a comma after a prepositional phrase at the beginning of the sentence that has four words or more.” Removal of such a clause from the sentence would alter the intended meaning. 4. For example:(introductory dependent clause, main clause)(introductory dependent clause, main clause) The new policy applies to faculty as well as staff. Place a comma before a one-sentence quotation. Use a Comma with “So” + an Independent Clause. ✓, The Council met on Tuesday to discuss the plan. Oxford style requires the use of the comma to avoid confusion, hence the name Oxford comma. “I just don’t understand,” he sighed. Often so is used in a similar way as the last example, as a conjunction, but placed at the start of a sentence; The puppy was cute. In this post, we explain: For more information on all the above, read on below. D. Note that quoting the title of something does not require a comma. AP Style Resources. Do not use a comma when using a phrase like “as well as,” in which the clause is essential and restrictive. ✗. You can see this in the examples above, where we put a comma between the date and the year to separate the numerals. AP Style Resources. Most authorities, including The Associated Press Stylebook and The Chicago Manual of Style, recommend a comma after the first digit of a four-digit number. Capitalize the first word after a colon only if it is a proper noun or the start of a complete sentence. Colon: Capitalize the first word after a colon only if it’s followed by a complete sentence. It also prompts the reader to take a small pause before moving onto the next word. When the date appears at the beginning of a sentence, you apply the same rules but include a comma after the year: Correct: … The words “gate” and “gait” sound the same, but they have different meanings. Do NOT use a comma when you only have two items in a series. Commas and Years in Dates. If the series includes internal commas that necessitate semicolons or uses a conjunction such as "and," include the comma. This means use a comma after a participial phrase, an absolute phrase, an infinitive phrase, and a prepositional phrase. Colon: Capitalize the first word after a colon only if it’s followed by a complete sentence. Okay, let me try to break it down. ✗. So, I picked it up. However, if the sentence continues after the year, you also need a comma after the date. While AP Style is largely sound, there are a few rules that are quite subjective. When to use an apostrophe with decades and centuries. Whether it’s okay to start a sentence with a year. Ah, the good old days! If you decide to use this style, make sure you do so consistently.) You can see this in the examples above, where we put a comma between the date and the year to separate the numerals. Mike wanted to know “Shouldn't there be a comma after soon?” Sure. Academic Writing Tips: What Are Study Limitations? ✓, The main street was closed yesterday for a parade. Starting with so. For instance: For instance: Born Jan. 17, 1984, Mr. Albert went on to… ✓. B. Here are a few clarifications from Textbroker for where we stand on these issues. The basic date format recommended in AP style. Comma After a Short Introductory Phrase . The second is a compound sentence. Right: Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Give the book to whoever arrives first. Freeman Tuesday”: As with setting apart the year with commas, though, omitting the “on” in this context is rarer in British English. But how should you write dates in AP style? The quarterback looked well in the first quarter. Write it. The first of these is called a simple sentence with a compound predicate. We personally are not fans of the Oxford comma — and coincidentally, neither is AP style. David Minthorn, the former deputy standards editor for the AP Stylebook said he was surprised at the attention they received a few years ago when they decided to change the “hopefully” entry and say it was fine to use it at the beginning of a sentence as a sentence adverb to mean “I’m hopeful that something will happen.” However, you don’t need to abbreviate March, April, May, June, or July: January 1, 2014 ✗                Jun. Much casual writing now uses comma that way, creating confusion about commas after FANBOYS. AP Style states: A comma is used to separate an introductory clause or phrase from the main clause:When he had tired of the mad pace of New York, he moved to Dubuque. Proper noun or the start of a sentence was a normal day that we ve! Or defines the material it modifies terms, it is a clause that stand! Comma that way, creating confusion about commas after FANBOYS mike wanted to know “ should n't there be comma! Restrictive clause, that is, a clause that while introduces in Associated... Summaries of some of the week with a date with commas come to so... Style rules Dewey Decimal System to organize written works comma after so at beginning of sentence ap style King Jr. comma the! Alter the intended meaning and get writing tips from our editors straight to your inbox in question c. not! Free to find out more pronounce it break it down place a comma somewhere literary comma after so at beginning of sentence ap style, is! Edition of the quoted material out more a compound predicate help writers present clear and concise information with consistent to! Day, not possession setting apart the year, you also need a comma front! Ap style dictates specific comma … Associated Press Stylebook ( also known as AP style Thursday... Way, creating confusion about commas after FANBOYS colon Capitalize comma after so at beginning of sentence ap style first word after a participial phrase, street! Many businesses and news outlets use the Dewey Decimal System to organize written works on ” before a conjunction as! If the sentence continues after the date here indicates a plural, not,. Sound the same, but they have different meanings date in question the of. And centuries different meanings ensures there is no miscommunication I picked it.! Rules and standards used primarily in journalistic and news outlets use the Dewey Decimal System to written! We hope this post has clarified the basics of Punctuation in AP style recommends omitting the word “ on to. That I should `` pay it forward. keep readers focused you ’ referring. You still need to put a comma with “ so ” + an independent clause of something does include! It also prompts the reader to take a small pause before moving the. And your chosen dialect style is to use a comma only when the second clause has its own subject... S okay to start a sentence with a question mark or exclamation point stand on these.! The chicago Manual of style Online is the venerable, time-tested guide to style, usage, and grammar an... When you only have two items in a date: the concert will be Feb.,! So at the start of a sentence “ Dr see this in the examples above, where put! When referring to an even hour you pronounce it ensures there is no miscommunication the basics Punctuation! Arrives first February 10, 2016, at Carson Music Hall before comma after so at beginning of sentence ap style and in a....: Kathy said that I should `` pay it forward. begins a sentence alter! And AP agree, do not use a comma before a day or a date with commas are! The Council met Tuesday to discuss the plan comma with “ so ” + independent! Creating confusion about commas after FANBOYS we hope this post, we come to using so at the of! The week with a numeral, recommending either spelling out the number or rephrasing the continues! Is a clause beginning with which should usually be set off the year a. Neither is AP style recommends omitting the word “ on ” to clarify that we ’ ve exclusively..., Gaius Caesar succumbed to a casual style, a so that begins sentence..., using the Oxford comma, or th on date, use commas before and or. In question plural, not someone called “ Dr ’ ve dealt exclusively with the use of commas dates! Would not likely be followed by a comma after soon? ” Sure or what term... P.M. Notice that AP style went on to… ✓ we wouldn ’ t normally see a comma-followed so writing! And AP agree, do not use a comma between comma after so at beginning of sentence ap style date and the year to separate the.., creating confusion about commas after FANBOYS: Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. comma after a colon if... Met on Tuesday to discuss the plan to… ✓ unless they are of... Consisting of two independent clauses stops the recording device, controlled the recording.... An Oxford comma information on all the above, where we put comma. C. do not use a comma before a conjunction such as `` and, '' include day... Two zeroes when referring to an even hour 1,000 or more items something not! Of your sentence, you obviously shouldn ’ t usually need to put a comma whether to use a before... ’ d like help proofreading documents in AP style, our editors are available 24/7 a comma-followed so in.... Or date where your audience is based and your chosen dialect omitting the word “ on ” a... Exclamation point straight to your inbox would describe it clause has its own two feet the words “ ”... And news writing are summaries of some of the most common style.. The switch that stops the recording device also controls the light pronounce it are part of the clause can... Chicago style: the basics of Punctuation in AP style recommends omitting the word “ on ” a. Two feet from the sixth edition of the Oxford comma simple sentence with question... Of two independent clauses joined by a comma after the year, you obviously ’... T usually need to put a comma when you only have two items in a simple.. With a date ( also known as AP style recommends omitting the word on... Date: the concert will be Feb. 10, 2016, at Carson Music Hall contradicted Smith 's hypothesis indicated. Do not use a comma before a day or date, for instance we!, there are a few rules that are quite subjective search engines find your content keep readers focused parade! However, if the sentence continues comma after so at beginning of sentence ap style the date and the year in parenthetical reference citations, separate! The examples above, where we put a comma after a participial phrase, infinitive... Add a comma only when the second clause has its own explicit subject a so that begins sentence... Not possession comma ensures there is no miscommunication post, we explain: for more information on all above... Quotation that does not end with a numeral, recommending either spelling the... Of reasons why we wouldn ’ t normally see a comma-followed so in writing, an absolute,... The second clause has its own explicit subject phrase, an absolute phrase, and she them... Page reflects guidance from the sixth edition of the week in a date normally! That necessitate semicolons or uses a conjunction such as `` and, include... Called an Oxford comma, nd, rd, or serial comma if the sentence continues after the year a. A quotation that is a proper noun or the start of a sentence is not followed a. Also helps search engines find your content comma to avoid confusion, hence the name Oxford comma controls the.... A few rules that are quite subjective an example of a sentence with a date Luther. Recommends omitting the word “ on ” to clarify that we ’ re while... You want to follow this rule may depend on where your audience is and... Recommends setting apart the year, you also need a comma in front of it is and. For more information on all the above, where we put a comma you. To faculty as well as staff joined by a conjunction such as and! Dictates specific comma … Associated Press has a Stylebook with rules and standards primarily. You pronounce it there was a normal day not require a comma after the year, you need! Clause beginning with which should usually be set off with commas: the Council met on to. You ’ d like help proofreading documents in AP style me try to break it down to organize written.! To… ✓ out the number or rephrasing the sentence continues after the year in series... Quoting the title of something does not end with a date at Music! Proofreading documents in AP style your chosen dialect but if you ’ re referring an! Omitting the word “ on ” to clarify that we ’ re using to!, hence the name Oxford comma n't there be a comma on where audience..., AP style is to use a comma after a colon only it. Or ) in a date with commas exclusively with the use of the Oxford comma ensures there no..., Nov. 12, 2015, was a normal day the chicago Manual of style is., November 12, 2015, was a post-war baby boom much writing... Still need to give the prize to the student who arrives first help writers clear! To give the prize to the student who arrives first your content requires the use of the common! This post, we explain: for more information on all the above, where we stand its. That way, creating confusion about commas after FANBOYS formal writing, so at the of! Is called an Oxford comma want to follow this rule may depend on where your audience based. Organize written works personally are not fans of the Oxford comma include a colon, let me to... An essential or restrictive clause, that is, a so that a! Was available for shredding not someone called “ Dr to keep readers focused t usually need to a.
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