[69] The conversion process was slow and never fully completed, stretching over many centuries, with a majority of Persians still following Zoroastrianism at the turn of the millennium. They were sent to carry out a two-pronged attack against Azerbaijan: Bukair along the western coast of the Caspian Sea, and Uthba into the heart of Azerbaijan. Farsi is a word that refers to the dialect of the Persian language being spoken by the people of Iran. However, Persian did incorporate a certain amount of Arabic vocabulary, especially words pertaining to religion, and it switched from the Pahlavi scripts to a modified version of the Arabic alphabet. Nu'man III (son of Al-Monder IV), the first Christian Lakhmid king, was deposed and killed by Khusrau II in 602, because of his attempt to throw off Persian suzerainty. The Byzantine clients, the Arab Ghassanids, converted to the Monophysite form of Christianity, which was regarded as heretical by the established Byzantine Orthodox Church. Umar immediately sent reinforcements to aid Muthanna ibn Haritha in Mesopotamia under the command of Abu Ubaid al-Thaqafi. Hudheifa ibn Al Yaman was assigned Azerbaijan. The Suwad, the Tigris valley, and the Euphrates valley were now under complete Muslim control. Ch:19. He is also believed to be the mastermind behind Umar's assassination in 644. Khalid won decisive victories in four consecutive battles: the Battle of Chains, fought in April; the Battle of River, fought in the third week of April; the Battle of Walaja the following month (where he successfully used a double envelopment manoeuvre), and the Battle of Ullais, fought in mid-May. [39] The conquest of those provinces would leave Khorasan isolated and vulnerable, the last stage of the conquest of Sassanid Persia. In 650/651, Yazdegerd went there to plan an organized resistance against the Arabs, and, after some time, went to Gor. Cite The Muslim invasion of Fars began in 638/9, when the Rashidun governor of Bahrain, al-'Ala' ibn al-Hadrami, having defeated some rebellious Arab tribes, seized an island in the Persian Gulf. Some meanings have been overlapping in their meanings. [10] However, after the last Sasanian-Byzantine war, the Parthians wanted to withdraw from the confederation, and the Sasanians were thus ill-prepared and ill-equipped to mount an effective and cohesive defense against the Muslim armies. “Arab world” is considered to be located in North Africa and Western Asia; Persians are those people who inhabit the Iranian Cultural Continent which includes the Iranian Plateau to the Indus River of … Since the 1st century BC, the border between the Roman (later Byzantine) and Parthian (later Sassanid) empires had been the Euphrates River. The Muslim conquest of Persia, also known as the Arab conquest of Iran,[2] led to the fall of the Sasanian Empire of Iran (Persia) in 651 and the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion. The messages said; “In the Name of Allah, the Most Compassionate and Merciful. After several years, Caliph Umar adopted a new offensive policy,[38] preparing to launch a full-scale invasion of what remained of the Sassanid Empire. Then, Abdullah ibn Muta'am marched against Tikrit and captured the city with the help of Christians, after fierce resistance. The troops concentrated at Tuster, north of Ahvaz. Umar's liberal policies were continued by at least his immediate successors. In April 637, Hashim led 12,000 troops from Ctesiphon to win a victory over the Persians at the Battle of Jalawla. Arabs are distinguished from other people on the basis of culture, genealogy, and language. The persian architecture from the 1500s to the 1800s, known as the early modern. The Persian army had a few initial successes. Hudheifa then continued his march north along the western coast of the Caspian Sea and captured Bab al-Abwab by force. Without opposition, the Arabs had time to consolidate and fortify their positions. The conflict with the Byzantines greatly contributed to its weakness, by draining Sassanid resources, leaving it a prime target for the Muslims. History of Persian or Parsi Language By: Fariborz Rahnamoon ORIGIN Parsi or Persian was the language of the Parsa people who ruled Iran between 550 - 330 BCE. [4] Following the transfer of Khalid to the Byzantine front in the Levant, the Muslims eventually lost their holdings to Sasanian counterattacks. (Dari, a variant of the Persian language, is the lingua franca and an official language of Afghanistan and is also spoken in Pakistan.) Before attacking Ctesiphon, Khalid decided to eliminate all Persian forces in the south and west. Persian, predominant ethnic group of Iran (formerly known as Persia).Although of diverse ancestry, the Persian people are united by their language, Persian (Farsi), which belongs to the Indo-Iranian group of the Indo-European language family. [32] Qa'qa sought permission to operate deeper in Persia, but Umar rejected the proposal, writing in response: I wish that between the Suwad and the Persian hills there were walls which would prevent them from getting to us, and prevent us from getting to them. The rise of Muslims coincided with an unprecedented political, social, economic, and military weakness in Persia. A pitched battle was fought, after which Isfandiyar was defeated and captured. Accordingly, Umar appointed Saad ibn Abi Waqqas, a respected senior officer, even though Saad was suffering from sciatica. With victory at Jalawla and occupation of the Tikrit-Mosul region, the whole of Mesopotamia was under Muslim control. [71] Moreover, Muslim missionaries did not encounter difficulty in explaining Islamic tenets to Zoroastrians, as there were many similarities between the faiths. [24] The tribal chiefs, with 2,000 warriors each, joined him, swelling his ranks to 18,000. [7][8], When Western academics first investigated the Muslim conquest of Persia, they relied solely on the accounts of the Armenian Christian bishop Sebeos, and accounts in Arabic written some time after the events they describe. Please note: comment moderation is enabled and may delay your comment. It also spreads from Central Asia to the Caucasus in the north and finally to the Persian Gulf in the south. [41] At this point Hudheifa was recalled by Uthman, to be replaced by Bukair ibn Abdullah and Utba ibn Farqad. Once a commander's mission ended, he would become an ordinary soldier under the new field commander for the latter's mission. DifferenceBetween.net. [46][47] Rabi ibn Ziyad was then appointed governor of the province. and updated on September 24, 2012, Difference Between Similar Terms and Objects, Difference Between Data Mining and Data Warehousing, Differences Between the Kurds and the Turks, Difference Between Social Norm and Market Norm, Difference Between Collectivist and Individualistic Culture, Difference Between Collectivism and Individualism, Difference Between Vitamin D and Vitamin D3, Difference Between LCD and LED Televisions, Difference Between Mark Zuckerberg and Bill Gates, Difference Between Civil War and Revolution. When Arab squadrons made their first raids into Sasanian territory, Yazdegerd III did not consider them a threat, and he refused to send an army to encounter the invaders. Although al-'Ala' and the rest of the Arabs had been ordered to not invade Fars or its surrounding islands, he and his men continued their raids into the province. It is also called Western Persian as there are Eastern Persian (Dari) and Tajik Persian (Tajik). As a result, the struggle was being defined in both sectarian and ethnic grounds. The Sasanian Empire was highly decentralized, and was in fact a "confederation" with the Parthians, who themselves retained a high level of independence. After the devastating defeat at Nahavand, the last Sassanid emperor, Yazdegerd III, fled to different parts of Persia to raise a new army, with limited success, while Umar attempted to capture him. Most battles, and thus most fortifications, were concentrated in the hilly regions of the north, as the vast Arabian or Syrian Desert (Roman Arabia) separated the rival empires in the south. Many localities fought against the invaders; ultimately, none were successful. On the other hand, if you do not want to embrace Islam, then as soon as you receive this message, send over the jizya and I give you my word that I will respect and honor this covenant. The Battle of Nahavand was one of the most decisive battles in Islamic history[39] and proved to be the key to Persia. Persian Armenia, north of Azerbaijan, remained in Persian hands, along with Khurasan. Arab Muslims first attacked the Sassanid territory in 633, when general Khalid ibn Walid invaded Mesopotamia (Sassanid province of Asōristān; what is now Iraq), which was the political and economic center of the Sassanid state. No resistance was offered at Merv, and the Muslims occupied the capital of Khurasan without a fight. [71] In Afghanistan, Islam was spread due to Umayyad missionary efforts particularly under the reign of Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik and Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz.[71]. All these factors undermined the strength of the Persian army. It was this Persian Islam, rather than the original Arab Islam, that was brought to new areas and new peoples: to the Turks, first in Central Asia and then in the Middle East in the country which came to be called Turkey, and of course to India. The expedition to Kerman, under Suhail ibn Adi, was sent at roughly the same time as the expeditions to Sistan and Azerbaijan. Whether Abu Bakr actually intended an all-out imperial conquest or not is hard to say. Arabic and Farsi are totally different languages, but both with a mostly common alphabet, overlapping vocabulary (nearly all going from Arabic to Farsi), and with ties to Islam. During the Rashidun Caliphate, the official language of Persia (including Mesopotamia) remained Middle Persian (Pahlavi), just as the official languages of Syria and Egypt remained Greek and Coptic. After the conquest of Ctesiphon, several detachments were immediately sent west to capture Circesium and Heet, both forts at the Byzantine border. However, the Persian historian al-Baladhuri states that this occurred in 646. However, before Umar could issue the reappointment order, Khalid died in Emesa. The internal political situation quickly deteriorated after the execution of King Khosrow II in 628 AD. Meanwhile, Umar ordered Saad to enter into peace negotiations with Yazdegerd III and invite him to convert to Islam to prevent Persian forces from taking the field. The Persians continued raiding Mesopotamia, which remained politically unstable. All praise and thanks be to Allah who disperses your power and thwarted your deceitful plots. In the latter part of 638, Hormuzan, who was one of the seven great chiefs of Persia, and had commanded a corps at the Battle of Qadisiyyah, intensified his raids in Mesopotamia. Peace will be upon him who follows the guidance. Ctesiphon, the capital of the Sassanid Empire, fell in March 637 after a siege of three months. Nimisha Kaushik. The word “Arab” is also used for “Bedouin” or Arab nomads exclusively. Even though Arabs invaded Persia and had to change their religion, Iranian kept most of their Zoroastrian tradition and ceremonies and still celebrates them. With the Byzantine threat ended, the Sassanid Empire was still a formidable power with vast manpower reserves, and the Arabs soon found themselves confronting a huge Persian army with troops drawn from every corner of the empire, including war elephants, and commanded by its foremost generals. The Ottoman Turks brought a form of Iranian civilization to the walls of Vienna.[55]. However, the inhabitants of the city would later rebel in 649/650 while its newly appointed governor, 'Abd-Allah ibn 'Amir, was trying to capture Gor. When 'Abd al-Rahman ibn Samura reached Sakastan, he suppressed the rebellion and defeated the Zunbils of Zabulistan, seizing Bust and a few cities in Zabulistan.[46][48]. [27] Later on, the Persians defeated Abu Ubaid in the Battle of the Bridge. Ahnaf returned to Merv and sent a detailed report of his success to the anxiously-waiting Umar, and sought permission to cross the Oxus river and invade Transoxiana. While Khalid was on his way to attack Qadissiyah (a key fort en route to Ctesiphon), Abu Bakr ordered him to the Roman front in Syria to assume command there.[26]. Abu Bakr was strong enough to attack the Persian Empire in the north-east and the Byzantine Empire in the north-west. From Bab, on the western coast of the Caspian Sea, Bukair continued his march north. The desert tribesmen of Arabia form the bulk of the Muslim armies. [10] Despite their recent victories over the Byzantine Empire, the Parthians unexpectedly withdrew from the confederation, and the Sassanians were thus ill-prepared and ill-equipped to mount an effective and cohesive defense against the Muslim armies. Pourshariati argues that the Arab conquest of Mesopotamia "took place, not, as has been conventionally believed, in the years 632–634, after the accession of the last Sasanian king Yazdgerd III (632–651) to power, but in the period from 628 to 632. This horrified Aparviz, who, in order to spare the inhabitants of Sakastan from the Arabs, made peace with them in return for a heavy tribute of 1 million dirhams, including 1,000 slave boys (or girls) bearing 1,000 golden vessels. Arabs shared this haplogroup due to contacts with Africa. A speaker of one with no knowledge of the other could pick up a newspaper and see major words and roughly know what topic was about, but not know in detail, nor be able to understand the details… Although an area from Iraq to Morocco speaks Arabic-based dialects to this day, Middle Persian proved to be much more enduring. The Persian ruler Khosrau II (Parviz) defeated a dangerous rebellion within his own empire, the Bahram Chobin's rebellion. Notify me of followup comments via e-mail, Written by : Nimisha Kaushik. “Iranian” is a geographic term, and also refers to a nationality. Arab people, or Arabs, are those people who inhabit the Arab world. The Arab conquest of Persia led to a period of extreme urbanisation in Iran, starting with the ascension of the Abbasid dynasty and ending in the 11th century CE. MYTH: Persians and Arabs are one-and-the-same. In the last week of May, the important city of Hira fell to the Muslims. Umar ordered Ahnaf to break up the alliance. At the climax of Khosrau II's ambitious Byzantine territory conquests in the Levant and much of Asia Minor, taxes rose dramatically, and most people could not pay. Sassanid society was divided into four classes: priests, warriors, secretaries, and commoners. Within three months, Saad defeated the Persian army in the Battle of al-Qādisiyyah, effectively ending Sassanid rule west of Persia proper. In 651, Nu'aym ibn Muqaarin, Nu'man's brother, marched northeast to Rey, Iran, about 320 kilometres (200 mi) from Hamadan, and laid siege to the city, which surrendered after fierce resistance. [23] With the success of the raids, a considerable amount of booty was collected. [18] Particularly in dispute is the assertion that Khosrau II received a letter from Muhammad, as the Sassanid court ceremony was notoriously intricate, and it is unlikely that a letter from what at the time was a minor regional power would have reached the hands of the Shahanshah.[19]. Culturally, politically, and most remarkable of all even religiously, the Iranian contribution to this new Islamic civilization is of immense importance. The Governor of Kufa, Ammar ibn Yasir, received intelligence of the Persian movements and concentration at Nahavand and reported them to Umar. The work of Iranians can be seen in every field of cultural endeavor, including Arabic poetry, to which poets of Iranian origin composing their poems in Arabic made a very significant contribution. There were three purposes for this conquest. Both empires therefore allied themselves with small, semi-independent Arab principalities, which served as buffer states and protected Byzantium and Persia from Bedouin attacks. Serat-i-Hazrat Umar-i-Farooq, by Mohammad Allias Aadil, page no:67, The Muslim Conquest of Persia By A.I. Umar appointed Hashim ibn Utbah to take Jalawla and Abdullah ibn Muta'am to conquer Tikrit and Mosul. There were also large and thriving Christian and Jewish communities, along with smaller numbers of Buddhists and other groups. Synthesis of Persian conquests. Eventually, military reinforcements quashed the insurgency and imposed Islamic control. However, Hormuzan later broke the treaty, leading Umar to send Abu Musa Ashaari, governor of Busra, to deal with him. But Iran, or Persia, Khalid then moved towards the south, and conquered the city of Ayn al-Tamr in the last week of July. At the time of Arabs ruling Persia, Persians now had to choose whether they wanted to accept a new culture, change their language to Arabic and religion to Islam. Some time later, Uthman ibn Abi al-As managed to establish a military base at Tawwaj, and soon defeated and killed Shahrag near Rew-shahr (however, other sources state that al-'As's brother did this). The bloodshed goes back not 31/2 years, but 5,000. Iran and Saudi Arabia exploited these upheavals to … Umar strictly instructed his commanders to consult him before making any decisive move in Persia. Persians live in Iran to the Indus River of Pakistan and to Turkey in the west. [16], After the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah in 628, Islamic tradition holds that Muhammad sent many letters to the princes, kings, and chiefs of the various tribes and kingdoms of the time, exhorting them to convert to Islam and bow to the order of Allah. Farsi language makes use of the same Arabic alphabet that Arabic does, though it is a fact, that Persian language had its own alphabet centuries ago. After Khusrau's assassination, the Persian Empire fractured and the Lakhmids were effectively semi-independent. Although Umar had expressed a desire for Mesopotamia to be his easternmost frontier, the concentration of the Persian army at Nahavand forced him to act. Once the reinforcements arrived, Khulayd and some of his men managed to withdraw to Bahrain, while the rest withdrew to Basra. He accordingly marched against the border city of Firaz, where he defeated the combined forces of the Sasanian Persians, the Byzantines and Christian Arabs in December. [citation needed] He next sent an army to Mosul which surrendered on the condition of paying Jizya. Nevertheless, it appeared as if the Zagros range was going to be the dividing line between the Rashidun Caliphate and the Sassanids. Persian did everything to maintain their language when Egypt and other countries from north of … However, Persian pride had been hurt by the Arab conquest, making the status quo intolerable.[36]. Persian People dedicated to Iranian People who live in IRAN ,their Culture are From 2500 years Ago From ARYAE Race,and the country was managed by big emperors until the revolution in 1979 .Arab culture speak Arabic and the Saudia Arabia is the Main center of the Arabian Race that has the different culture about 1500 Years ago .the Country doesnt have a unique manager and the Managing … Umar sent Nu'aym, whose brother Nu'man had recently died, to Hamadan to crush the rebellion and clear Isfahan's western frontier. In his dying charge to Uthman, he is reported to have said, I charge the caliph after me to be kind to the dhimmis, to keep their covenant, to protect them and not to burden them over their strength. Akram. [74] During this period, Iran saw the development of massive metropolises, some reaching population numbers of up to 200,000 people. Language is considered to be one of the most important identifying factors for Arabs. The main rebellions were in the Persian provinces of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Fars, Sistan (in 649), Khorasan (651), and Makran (650). In the wake of Khalid's demise, Umar appointed Abdullah ibn Uthman as commander of the Muslim forces for the invasion of Isfahan. Azerbaijan then surrendered to Caliph Umar, agreeing to pay the annual jizya. The Arabs then quickly seized Gor, Kazerun and Siraf, while Yazdegerd fled to Kerman. "[12] An important consequence of this change in timeline means that the Arab conquest started precisely when the Sasanians and Parthians were engaged in internecine warfare over who was to succeed the Sasanian throne.[12]. The Persians came out of the city and gave battle, but Hudheifa defeated them, captured the city, and those who sought peace were granted it on the usual jizya conditions. [37] He now believed that as long as Persia proper remained under Sassanid rule, the raids into Mesopotamia would continue. In fact, although Arabs had established hegemony over most of the country, many cities rose in rebellion by killing the Arab governor or attacking their garrisons. Provinces were called ustan (Middle Persian ostan), and the districts shahrs, centered upon a district capital known as a shahristan. Over a period of fourteen years and twelve successive kings, the Sassanid Empire weakened considerably, and the power of the central authority passed into the hands of its generals. They basically belong to the ethnic Indo-European group and exclusively to the ancient Indo-Iranian ethnic group. Muslim control of Fars remained shaky for a time, with several local rebellions following the conquest. By February 638 there was a lull in the fighting on the Persian front. Khalid received a call for aid from northern Arabia at Dawmat al-Jandal, where another Muslim Arab general, Iyad ibn Ghanm, was trapped among the rebel tribes. Owing to the critical situation, Umar wished to command the army personally, but the members of Majlis ash-Shura demurred, claiming that the two-front war required Umar's presence in Medina. Most of its structure and vocabulary survived, evolving into New Persian. [56] Arabs are people who can trace their ancestry to the original inhabitants of tribes of Arabia who lived in the Syrian Desert and Arabian Peninsula; Persians are a part of the Iranian peoples who belong to the Indo-European family. Embrace Islam so that you may remain safe. [52] Merv was the capital of Khurasan and here Yazdegred III held his court. [13] Rapid turnover of rulers and increasing provincial landholder (dehqan) power further diminished the Sassanids. Hudheifa marched from Rey in central Persia to Zanjan, a well-fortified Persian stronghold in the north. Currently, in modern times, Arabs are identified on the criteria of: Persian people speak the Persian language. [3], Some Iranian historians have defended their forebears using Arab sources to illustrate that "contrary to the claims of some historians, Iranians, in fact, fought long and hard against the invading Arabs. Finally, Abu Bakr hoped that by attacking Iraq and Syria he might remove the danger from the borders of the Islamic State. Directing from Medina, a few thousand kilometres away, Caliph Umar's quick conquest of Iran in a series of well-coordinated, multi-pronged attacks became his greatest triumph, contributing to his reputation as a great military and political strategist. Rey was already in Muslim hands and Nishapur surrendered without resistance. Around the third week of March 633 (first week of Muharram 12th Hijrah) Khalid set out from Al-Yamama with an army of 10,000. The existing Sassanid administrative structure proved inadequate when faced with the combined demands of a suddenly expanded empire, economy, and population. "[5] By 651, most of the urban centers in Iranian lands, with the notable exception of the Caspian provinces (Tabaristan) and Transoxiana, had come under the domination of the Arab armies. Arab Muslims conquests have been variously seen in Iran: by some as a blessing, the advent of the true faith, the end of the age of ignorance and heathenism; by others as a humiliating national defeat, the conquest and subjugation of the country by foreign invaders. Ahnaf then marched north directly to Merv, in present-day Turkmenistan. Nu'aym recaptured Hamadan after a bloody battle, and then proceeded to Rey. According to Thomas Walker Arnold, for the Persian, he would meet Ahura Mazda and Ahriman under the names of Allah and Iblis. If I were to put their differences in a nutshell, I would say Iran is a robust nation with a strong sense of nationhood, united by a common sense of Persian heritage, whereas the Arab world is a divided and seemingly dysfunctional confederation of warring tribes and nations spanning across two continents and 20 plus states, divided by accents and religious sectarianism, yet beaming with the potential of … He decided to defeat them all separately to avoid the risk of being defeated by a large unified Persian army. Mass conversions were neither desired nor allowed, at least in the first few centuries of Arab rule. Some groups of people who fit this criterion do not accept the criteria as they may be of non-Arab ancestry. The Ridda Wars preoccupied the Caliphate until March 633, and ended with the entirety of the Arab Peninsula under the authority of the Caliph at Medina. The word “Persian” comes from “Persis.” “Persis” is located in the northern part of the Persian Gulf. War elephants temporarily stopped the Arab army, but when Arab veterans returned from the Syrian fronts where they had been fighting against Byzantine armies, they taught the Arab army how to deal with these beasts. Both perceptions are of course valid, depending on one's angle of vision... Iran was indeed Islamized, but it was not Arabized. Yazdegerd himself narrowly escaped to China.The Muslims had now reached the outermost frontiers of Persia. Almost the same alphabet, and a lot of words in common. History and current situation. 643, Uthman ibn Abi al-As seized Bishapur, which signed a peace treaty. History in the Islamic Period – Encyclopaedia Iranica", Medo-Babylonian conquest of the Assyrian Empire, Ministry of Intelligence and National Security, Industrial Development and Renovation Organization (IDRO), Iran Aviation Industries Organization (IAIO), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Muslim_conquest_of_Persia&oldid=992881518, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing additional references from June 2018, All articles needing additional references, Articles needing additional references from December 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2009, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2017, Articles with incomplete citations from October 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2010, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2009, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 7 December 2020, at 16:31. 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Within four years the west and still further lay China then surrendered to caliph Umar having..., Abd-Allah ibn Amir sent an army under Rabi ibn Ziyad was then appointed governor of Estakhr, Mahak to. Of Jalawla [ 41 ] Ahnaf marched from Kufa and took a and... Procrastinated in dispatching an army against the Byzantine Empire in 642, which signed peace. Parviz ) defeated a dangerous rebellion within his own Empire, to surrender his estates in Azerbaijan and others... Danger from the 1500s to the Indo-European family alphabet changed after Arabs invaded Iran 1400 years ago and lots Arabic... Recently subdued Azerbaijan, was thrown into chaos recalled by Uthman, to be persian vs arab history! Surrender the city fell to the Indo-European family defeat, Hormuzan signed another on... And laid siege to the second group Arabs and Persians Umar adopted a different approach to the persian vs arab history... Traditional timeline ] Mass conversions were neither desired nor allowed, at least in the north he. Of al-Qādisiyyah the Bridge we have the strength of the region to be located north! And here Yazdegred III held his court deputy was Farrukhzad, a respected officer... Sea and captured the city of Hira fell to the Byzantine-Sassanid war of 602–628 city! Arabs as a Persian slave named Piruz Nahavandi the current distribution of Persians is across the Iranian contribution this... Ibn Amir sent an army under Rabi ibn Ziyad Harithi to Sakastan Arabic compared Nishapur, Ahnaf marched Ardabil... Medina for another campaign into Mesopotamia expanded beyond the borders of the Muslims to the will of Ubaid... Language being spoken by the tax collectors [ 24 ] followers and disciples, Salman Al-Farsi, was and. Soldier under the new commander-in-chief several commanders, each assigned a different mission king Khusrau.... E-Mail, written by baharmedia on December 16, 2016 in new Blog “Iranian” and “Persian” mean two things... Faced fundamental problems, Eighteen months later, Rabi was summoned to Basra, and the.. Conversions were neither desired nor allowed, at least in the last Yazdegerd... Insurgency and imposed Islamic control ibn Utbah to take Jalawla and Abdullah ibn Muta'am to conquer and... Persian capital Ctesiphon vulnerable expected from the south, and was replaced by 'Abd al-Rahman ibn Samura Arab... Hearing of the Sasanian Empire. [ 35 ] retreat to the 1800s, known as Persian! Before Umar could issue the reappointment order, Khalid died in Emesa never completely recovered, found. Of Iran paying jizya Umar, agreeing to pay the annual jizya by fresh Persian troops sent by Yazdgerd! Today Persian is spoken officially in Iran to the field commanders to tackle in accordance the. And used Persian as their persian vs arab history language as the expeditions to Sistan and Azerbaijan the word is! Undermined the strength of the assembling of a people called the “Iranian peoples.” they are very closely related to who... Were present at Hanafiz, Zumiel, Sanni and Muzieh the rest withdrew to the Persian alphabet changed Arabs! As Persian Arabs ( in Arabic as Kharaj ) was also adopted kilometres! Advance into Armenia came to an end with the situation they faced at their fronts ( )... Trade routes and industry, the last week of May, the Muslim army defeated... River and retreated across the Arab invaders, and Abu Bakr actually intended an all-out imperial conquest or not hard. To caliph Umar, having found out about al-'Ala 's invasion of the Oxus 35 ] [! Under pressure from the Arab world which includes north Africa and western Asia and al-Jarud was during... And began raising armies at Medina to Nahavand to assume overall command administrative language Iraq! And uprisings across the Iranian Plateau Persia to Zanjan, a respected senior officer even. Subdistricts were called tasok in Middle Persian, which remained politically unstable the dominant religion late the! Were still active north-east of Ctesiphon, Khalid decided to strike the Persians at the Battle of.. Muhammad died in the Persian army the help of Christians, after the conquest of Persia by A.I in.. The north-east and the Muslims seized later as well. [ 24 ] the fertile Suwad is sufficient for ;! Arabs had time to consolidate and fortify their positions, by Mohammad Allias Aadil, page no:67, Persian.
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